Recently I got a new MacBook Pro and decided to set it up from scratch, because I use the same Time Machine backup to migrate from since about four years. Perfect time to get rid of the web server/LAMP (Linux Apache MySQL PHP) stack and replace it with Nginx and PHP-FPM as FastCGI implementation. Below you can read how to setup Nginx, PHP-FPM, MySQL and phpMyAdmin on OS X 10.9 / Mavericks.
Updated for Yosemite users: Updated the guide for 10.10 since Yosemite is officially released. The steps are basically the same as for Mavericks.
First of all, get the latest Xcode version (6.1) via the Mac App Store:
As soon as you have finished the download, open Xcode in your
/Applications folder and agree to the licence.
Open a new Terminal window and install the Xcode Command Line Tools:
Confirm the installation dialog with
Back in Xcode, hit
⌘ + , to access the Preferences and navigate to the Locations tab. Set the Command Line Tools to the latest version available , Xcode 6.1 (61A1052c) in my example:
Make sure you use Xcode 6.1!
Now we need to install Homebrew, which is a package manager for OS X. You probably already heard about
aptitude on Linux distributions to install packages or depencies for a specific application.
brew works the same, just on Mac operating systems. It will also make sure that you will get the latest updates of the installed packages as well, so you don't need to worry about outdated versions or vulnerable security flaws and exploits either.
First, we need Xquartz:
curl http://xquartz-dl.macosforge.org/SL/XQuartz-2.7.7.dmg -o /tmp/XQuartz.dmg open /tmp/XQuartz.dmg
Now we need to download and install Homebrew with the following command:
ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"
Check for any conflicts or problems (If you have confilcts, sort them out before you continue with this guide):
Update and upgrade Homebrew formulas
brew update && brew upgrade
Because Homebrew doesn't have a default formula for PHP-FPM, we need need to add this first:
brew tap homebrew/dupes brew tap homebrew/php
Now install it with the following arguments:
brew install --without-apache --with-fpm --with-mysql php55
Homebrew is downloading now the PHP-FPM source code and compiling it for you. Give it some time, it can take several minutes.
Setup PHP CLI binary
If you want to use the PHP command line binary, you need to update the
$PATH environment variable of your shell profile:
# If you use Bash echo 'export PATH="$(brew --prefix homebrew/php/php55)/sbin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bash_profile && . ~/.bash_profile # If you use ZSH echo 'export PATH="$(brew --prefix homebrew/php/php55)/sbin:$PATH"' >> ~/.zshrc && . ~/.zshrc
Setup auto start
mkdir -p ~/Library/LaunchAgents cp /usr/local/opt/php55/homebrew.mxcl.php55.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents/
And start PHP-FPM
launchctl load -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.php55.plist
Make sure PHP-FPM is listening on port 9000:
lsof -Pni4 | grep LISTEN | grep php
The output should look something like this:
php-fpm 69659 frdmn 6u IPv4 0x8d8ebe505a1ae01 0t0 TCP 127.0.0.1:9000 (LISTEN) php-fpm 69660 frdmn 0u IPv4 0x8d8ebe505a1ae01 0t0 TCP 127.0.0.1:9000 (LISTEN) php-fpm 69661 frdmn 0u IPv4 0x8d8ebe505a1ae01 0t0 TCP 127.0.0.1:9000 (LISTEN) php-fpm 69662 frdmn 0u IPv4 0x8d8ebe505a1ae01 0t0 TCP 127.0.0.1:9000 (LISTEN)
Next step is to install MySQL:
brew install mysql
Setup auto start
ln -sfv /usr/local/opt/mysql/*.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents
And start the database server:
launchctl load ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.mysql.plist
Secure the installation
To seure our MySQL server, we'll exececute the provided
secure_mysql_installation binary to change the root password, remove anonymous users and disbale remote root logins:
> Enter current password for root (enter for none):
Press enter since you don't have one set.
> Change the root password? [Y/n]
Press enter, choose a root password, add it in your 1Password keychain and enter it here.
> Remove anonymous users? [Y/n]
Yes. They are not necessary.
> Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n]
Yes. No need to log in as root from any other IP than 127.0.0.1.
> Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n]
Yes. We don't need the testing tables.
> Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]
Reload the privilege table to ensure all changes made so far will take effect.
mysql -uroot -p
Enter your root password and you should see the MySQL console:
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement. mysql>
Quit the session with
mysql> \q Bye
autoconf which you need for the installation of phpMyAdmin:
brew install autoconf
# If you use Bash echo 'PHP_AUTOCONF="'$(which autoconf)'"' >> ~/.bash_profile && . ~/.bash_profile # If you use ZSH echo 'PHP_AUTOCONF="'$(which autoconf)'"' >> ~/.zshrc && . ~/.zshrc
Let's start with the installation of phpMyAdmin:
brew install phpmyadmin
Install the default Nginx with:
brew install nginx
Setup auto start
Since we want to use port 80 have to start the Nginx process as root:
sudo cp -v /usr/local/opt/nginx/*.plist /Library/LaunchDaemons/ sudo chown root:wheel /Library/LaunchDaemons/homebrew.mxcl.nginx.plist
Test web server
Start Nginx for the first with:
sudo launchctl load /Library/LaunchDaemons/homebrew.mxcl.nginx.plist
The default configuration is set that it will listen on port 8080 instead of the HTTP standard 80. Ignore that for now:
curl -IL http://127.0.0.1:8080
The output should look like:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Server: nginx/1.6.2 Date: Mon, 19 Oct 2014 19:07:47 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 612 Last-Modified: Mon, 19 Oct 2014 19:01:32 GMT Connection: keep-alive ETag: "5444dea7-264" Accept-Ranges: bytes
Stop Nginx again:
sudo launchctl unload /Library/LaunchDaemons/homebrew.mxcl.nginx.plist
Create some folders which we are going to use in the configurtion files:
mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/logs mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-available mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-enabled mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl sudo mkdir -p /var/www sudo chown :staff /var/www sudo chmod 775 /var/www
Remove the current default
nginx.conf (which is also available as
/usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf.default in case you want to take a look) and download my custom one via
curl from GitHub:
rm /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf curl -L https://gist.github.com/frdmn/7853158/raw/nginx.conf -o /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
The configuration is simple and as lightweight as possible: worker settings, log format/paths and some includes. None of unnecessary (and probably commented out) stuff out of the
Load PHP FPM
Download my PHP-FPM configuration from GitHub:
curl -L https://gist.github.com/frdmn/7853158/raw/php-fpm -o /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d/php-fpm
Create default virtual hosts
curl -L https://gist.github.com/frdmn/7853158/raw/sites-available_default -o /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-available/default curl -L https://gist.github.com/frdmn/7853158/raw/sites-available_default-ssl -o /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-available/default-ssl curl -L https://gist.github.com/frdmn/7853158/raw/sites-available_phpmyadmin -o /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-available/phpmyadmin
Clone my example virtual host (including 404, 403 and a
phpinfo() rewrite) using
git clone http://git.frd.mn/frdmn/nginx-virtual-host.git /var/www rm -rf /var/www/.git
/var/www/.git folder so your future projects won't get tracked by git.
Create folder for our SSL certificates and private keys:
mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl
Generate 4096bit RSA keys and the self-sign the certificates in one command:
openssl req -new -newkey rsa:4096 -days 365 -nodes -x509 -subj "/C=US/ST=State/L=Town/O=Office/CN=localhost" -keyout /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl/localhost.key -out /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl/localhost.crt openssl req -new -newkey rsa:4096 -days 365 -nodes -x509 -subj "/C=US/ST=State/L=Town/O=Office/CN=phpmyadmin" -keyout /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl/phpmyadmin.key -out /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl/phpmyadmin.crt
Enable virtual hosts
Now we need to symlink the virtual hosts we want to enable into the
ln -sfv /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-available/default /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default ln -sfv /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-available/default-ssl /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default-ssl ln -sfv /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-available/phpmyadmin /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-enabled/phpmyadmin
Start Nginx again:
sudo launchctl load /Library/LaunchDaemons/homebrew.mxcl.nginx.plist
Thats it, everything should be up and running. Click on the links below to ensure that:
- http://localhost → "Nginx works" page
- http://localhost/info →
- http://localhost/nope → " Not Found" page
- https://localhost:443 → "Nginx works" page (SSL)
- https://localhost:443/info →
- https://localhost:443/nope → "Not Found" page (SSL)
- https://localhost:306 → phpMyAdmin (SSL)
Control the services
Because your probably need to restart the one or other service sooner or later, you probably want to set up some aliases:
curl -L https://gist.github.com/frdmn/7853158/raw/bash_aliases -o /tmp/.bash_aliases cat /tmp/.bash_aliases >> ~/.bash_aliases # If you use Bash echo "source ~/.bash_aliases" >> ~/.bash_profile # If you use ZSH echo "source ~/.bash_aliases" >> ~/.zshrc
You can either open a new Terminal window/session or enter the following command to reload the shell configuration in your current one:
source ~/.bash_profile # or source ~/.zshrc
Now you can use short aliases instead of typing in
launchctl arguments and plist paths.
You can start, stop and restart Nginx with:
nginx.start nginx.stop nginx.restart
To quickly tail the latest error or access logs:
nginx.logs.access nginx.logs.default.access nginx.logs.phpmyadmin.access nginx.logs.default-ssl.access nginx.logs.error nginx.logs.phpmyadmin.error
sudo nginx -t
Start, start and restart PHP-FPM:
php-fpm.start php-fpm.stop php-fpm.restart
Start, start and restart your MySQL server:
mysql.start mysql.stop mysql.restart
Here are some of the frequently asked questions out of the comment section below. In case you have any issue or problem, try to check below if you find your problem listed.
[emerg] mkdir() "/usr/local/var/run/nginx/client_body_temp"
Upgraded to Yosemite and now Nginx doesn't start anymore? Try to reinstall the brew formula:
brew reinstall --force nginx
lsof -Pni4 | grep LISTEN | grep php doesn't return anything
Make sure your
$PATH variable is properly set:
echo $PATH | grep php55
If that command doesn'T return anything you probably forgot to adjust your
.bash_profile. Make sure to add this line at the end:
export PATH="$(brew --prefix homebrew/php/php55)/bin:$PATH"
Could not resolve host: git.frd.mn
Probably an outage of my private hosted GitLab server. To fix this, simply try to get in contact with me. Either via Twitter, E-Mail IRC (frdmn@freenode/espernet) or the comment section below. I'll try to respond as soon as possible and fix potential issues.
Failed to connect to localhost port 80: Connection refused
This is an IPv6 related issue, originating in the
/etc/hosts file of your Mac. To fix this, find the line "fe80::1%lo0 localhost" and comment it out. Or just use this one liner:
sudo sed -i "" 's/^fe80\:\:/\#fe80\:\:/g' /etc/hosts
configure: error: Can not find OpenSSL's <evp.h>
Make sure Xcode as well as Xcode's CLI tools as installed and up to date!
Let me know in case you stuck at some point or you have some suggestions!